Chronology of Linus C. Pauling by Robert J. Paradowski

1901

     Linus Carl Pauling born 28 February in Portland, Oregon; first
     child of Herman Henry William Pauling, a druggist, and Lucy
     Isabelle (Darling) Pauling (called Belle)

1902

     Pauline Darling Pauling, first daughter, born 7 August

1903

     Herman Pauling moves family to Oswego, Oregon

     Ava Helen Miller (Linus Pauling's future wife) born 24 December

1904

     Lucile Pauling, second daughter, born 1 January

     Herman Pauling moves family to Salem, where he works as a
     traveling drug salesman for D.J. Fry, a jeweler and druggist

1905

     In April, Herman Pauling moves his family to Condon, Oregon, where
     he sets up a drugstore

1906

     Linus Pauling begins attending grammar school in Condon

1909

     In the fall, the Paulings move back to Portland, where Herman
     opens a drugstore

1910

     Herman Pauling, at 33 years of age, suddenly dies on 11 June of a
     perforated stomach ulcer with attendant peritonitis

     In September, Linus Pauling attends Sunnyside Grammar School,
     where he especially enjoys his mathematics courses

1912

     Begins collecting insects, reading about them, and cataloguing his
     collection

1913

     Collects minerals and starts thinking about the connection between
     the properties and structures of minerals

1914

     Graduates from Sunnyside Grammar School and enters Washington High
     School

     In the fall, Lloyd Jeffress, a friend, shows Pauling a chemical
     experiment stimulating Pauling to decide to become a chemist

1916

     In the spring term, Pauling takes his first semester of
     high-school chemistry from William V. Greene

1917

     Leaves Washington High School without a degree at the end of the
     spring term

     In the fall, he enters Oregon Agricultural College (OAC) in
     Corvallis as a chemical-engineering major

1919

     In the summer, he works as a paving-plant inspector for the State
     of Oregon; a family financial crisis causes him to remain with
     this job at the summer's end and to abandon his plans to return to
     college for his junior year

     In the late fall, he takes a position as a full-time assistant
     instructor in quantitative analysis for the chemistry department
     of OAC

1919-20

     Studies the chemical-bond papers of Gilbert Newton Lewis and
     Irving Langmuir

1920

     In the fall, Pauling returns to OAC as a junior

1922

     During the winter term, Pauling, a senior, teaches freshman
     chemistry to home-economics students and meets Ava Helen Miller,
     with whom he falls in love

     On 5 June, Pauling receives his Bachelor of Science degree from
     OAC

     In the fall, he begins graduate studies in physical chemistry at
     the California Institute of Technology (CIT) in Pasadena

1923

     Publishes, with Roscoe G. Dickinson, his first scientific paper, a
     determination of the crystal structure of molybdenite

     Marries Ava Helen Miller on 17 June in Salem, Oregon

1925

     Linus Pauling, Jr., first child, born on 10 March

     On 12 June, he receives his Ph.D. degree in chemistry (with minors
     in physics and mathematics) summa cum laude from CIT

1925-26

     Spends his National Research Fellowship year at CIT, where he
     works on X-ray crystallography and quantum theory

1926

     During February and March, Pauling, who has received a Guggenheim
     Fellowship, travels with his wife to Europe; after spending time
     in Italy, they arrive on 20 April in Munich, Germany, where
     Pauling begins work with Arnold Sommerfeld at h is Institute for
     Theoretical Physics

     On 12 July, Belle Pauling dies in Salem, Oregon of pernicious
     anemia

1927

     From 21 April to 24 May, Pauling works on quantum mechanics at
     Copenhagen University's Institute for Theoretical Physics (now
     known as the Niels Bohr Institute)

     Pauling publishes "The Theoretical Prediction of the Physical
     Properties on Many-Electron Atoms and Ions" in the Proceedings of
     the Royal Society (London), one of his most heavily cited papers

     During the summer, Pauling spends a few months at the University
     of Zurich, where he attends a few lectures by Erwin Schrödinger
     and Peter Debye and where he carries out some important quantum
     mechanical calculations

     In the fall, the Paulings return to Pasadena

1927-29

     Pauling is Assistant Professor of Theoretical Chemistry at the
     California Institute of Technology

1929

     In April, he publishes his principles for determining the
     structures of complex ionic crystals in the Journal of the
     American Chemical Society

1929-31

     Pauling is Associate Professor at CIT

1929-33

     During the spring of each year, Pauling lectures in chemistry and
     physics at the University of California in Berkeley

1930

     In the summer, he travels to Europe where he spends time at W.L.
     Bragg's laboratory in England and at Sommerfeld's institute in
     Munich; he also visits Hermann Mark in Ludwigshafen, who tells him
     about the electron-diffraction technique

     In the fall, he supervises the construction of an
     electron-diffraction apparatus at CIT (between 1932 and 1957, 225
     molecular structures are determined by means of this technique at
     CIT)

     With Samuel A. Goudsmit, Pauling publishes The Structure of Line
     Spectra, his first book

1931

     On 10 February, Peter Jeffress, Pauling's second son, is born

     On 6 April, Pauling's important and influential paper on the
     nature of the chemical bond is published in the Journal of the
     American Chemical Society

     He is made full professor at CIT

     On 2 September, he receives the first award of the A.C. Langmuir
     Prize at a meeting of the American Chemical Society in Buffalo,
     New York

1932

     During the spring term, he lectures in chemistry at physics at the
     Massachusetts Institute of Technology

     On 31 May, his daughter Linda is born

1932-33

     Publishes several classic papers on the chemical bond in which he
     introduces an electronegativity scale and an explanation for
     intermediate ionic-covalent bonding

1933

     Pauling is elected to the National Academy of Sciences

     Receives from Oregon State College his first honorary degree

1934

     Begins work on hemoglobin

1935

     With E. Bright Wilson, Jr. as co-author, he publishes Introduction
     to Quantum Mechanics, with Applications to Chemistry

1936

     With Alfred Mirsky, he publishes an influential paper on a general
     theory of protein structure

     In May, he meets Karl Landsteiner, who introduces him to
     immunology

1937

     Pauling is appointed director of the Gates Laboratory and Chairman
     of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at CIT

     On 4 June, his third (and last) son, Edward Crellin, is born

     During the summer, he tries to coil a polypeptide chain to fit the
     crude x-ray data then available for proteins

1937-38

     Pauling is George Fisher Baker Lecturer at Cornell University

1939

     The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and the Structure of Molecules
     and Crystals is published by Cornell University Press (2nd ed.,
     1940; 3rd ed., 1960)

1940

     Publishes his theory of the structure of antibodies and the nature
     of their interaction with antigens

     In July, he and Max Delbrück publish a paper on the nature of the
     intermolecular forces in biological process in which they discuss
     the idea of molecular complementarity

1940-41

     Becomes ill with glomerulonephritis; with the help of Dr. Thomas
     Addis, he battles this disease for the next several years

     Develops an oxygen-detecting instrument based on oxygen's magnetic
     properties (used in submarines and airplanes during World War II)

1941

     On 7 March, he receives the William H. Nichols Medal of the New
     York Section of the American Chemical Society for his fundamental
     contributions to the nature of the chemical bond

1942-45

     Works for several divisions of the National Defense Research
     Commission and acts as principal investigator on 14 contracts for
     the Office of Scientific Research and Development

     President of the Pacific Division of the American Association for
     the Advancement of Science

1945

     "Japanese gardener incident" -- by hiring a Nisei Japanese as a
     temporary gardener, the Paulings provoke hate messages to be
     scrawled in red paint on their garage doors

1946

     At the request of Albert Einstein, Pauling becomes a member of the
     Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists

     On June 14, Pauling receives the 35th J. Willard Gibbs Medal of
     the Chicago Section of the American Chemical Society

1947

     To help West Coast publishers, he brings out General Chemistry
     through W.H. Freeman of San Francisco

     Silliman Lecturer at Yale University

     Publishes his influential ideas on metals in the Journal of the
     American Chemical Society

     Receives the Theodore William Richards Medal of the Northeast
     Section of the American Chemical Society

     Receives the Davy Medal of the Royal Society of London

1948

     Eastman Professor at Balliol College, Oxford University

     Receives the Presidential Medal for Merit of the United States

     Discovers the alpha helix, a basic structure of protein molecules

     Receives honorary doctorates from Oxford University and the
     University of Paris

1949

     President of the American Chemical Society

     Publishes, with Harvey A. Itano, S.J. Singer, and I.C. Wells, the
     paper on sickle cell anemia, in which they prove that it is a
     molecular disease

1950

     Publishes College Chemistry

     Begins bringing out papers on the alpha helix

1951

     With Robert B. Corey and H.R. Branson, he publishes "The Structure
     of Proteins: Two Hydrogen-Bonded Helical Configurations of the
     Polypeptide Chain" and several other important papers on protein
     structure in the Proceedings of the Nationa l Academy of Sciences

     On November 27, he receives the Gilbert Newton Lewis Medal of the
     California Section of the American Chemical Society

1952

     The U.S. State Department refuses to grant Pauling a passport
     because his anti-Communist statements are not "strong enough"

     On a fourth try, he receives a "limited passport" for travel to
     England and France

     In August, Pauling and his wife make a six-week visit to France
     and England: in Paris, he attends the second International
     Congress of Biochemistry and in England, he attends a meeting of
     the Faraday Society on the physical chemistry of prot eins

1952-53

     Works on the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid

1954

     Pauling is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "his research
     into the nature of the chemical bond and its applications to the
     elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

1955

     On 15 July, he signs, with 52 other Nobel Prize winners, the
     Mainau Declaration, which calls for an end to all war, especially
     nuclear war

     Receives the Thomas Addis Memorial Medal of the American Nephrosis
     Society

1956

     Begins work in orthomolecular psychiatry

     Receives the Amadeo Avogadro Medal in Rome

1957

     Circulates, with the help of his wife and many others, a petition
     calling for an end to all nuclear bomb tests

     On 9 July, Pauling receives the Pasteur Medal of the Pasteur
     Institute

1958

     On 15 January, Pauling and his wife present to Dag Hammarskjöold
     at the United Nations the petition to end nuclear-bomb testing
     with over 11,000 signatures from scientists all over the world

     In February, Pauling debates the fallout issue with Edward Teller
     on the educational television station KQED in San Francisco

     No More War! published

     Pauling resigns from his administrative positions at CIT

1959

     Linus and Ava Helen Pauling attend the Conference against Atomic
     and Hydrogen Bombs in Hiroshima, Japan

1960

     Testifies before the Internal Security Subcommittee of the
     Committee on the Judiciary of the United States Senate about the
     Nuclear-bomb-test petition he circulated in 1957

     On 11 October, nearly four months after his first testimony,
     Pauling appears again before the subcommittee and refuses to
     reveal the names of those who helped circulate his petition

1960-63

     Pauling is involved in lawsuits against several newspapers and the
     National Review

1961

     In May, Linus and Ava Helen Pauling attend in Oslo an
     international peace conference against the spread of nuclear
     weapons

     Publishes his molecular theory of general anesthesia in Science

1963

     On 10 October, the day the partial nuclear test-ban treaty goes
     into effect, Pauling receives the news that he has won the 1962
     Nobel Peace Prize

1963-67

     Becomes a staff member of the Center for the Study of Democratic
     Institutions in Santa Barbara, California (officially he is on a
     leave of absence from CIT, but as a matter of fact his new
     position marks a break with CIT after a forty- year association);
     around this same time he resigns from the American Chemical
     Society because of the society's misrepresentation of his
     nuclear-bomb-test suits

1964

     Pauling, with Roger Hayward, publishes The Architecture of
     Molecules

     Begins writing papers on the structure of atomic nuclei

1965

     In February, Pauling participates in the International Convocation
     on the Requirements of Peace held in the United Nations to examine
     the practical implications of Pope John XXIII's encyclical, Pacem
     in Terris

     With Emile Zuckerkandl, Pauling publishes a paper on molecules as
     documents of evolutionary history

1966

     In April, Pauling receives a letter from Irwin Stone, informing
     him of the great value of large amounts of vitamin C in the diet;
     this letter instigates Pauling's interest in ascorbic acid

     On 3 December, he receives the first Linus Pauling Medal for
     distinguished achievement in chemistry from the Oregon and Puget
     Sound Sections of the American Chemical Society

1967-69

     Becomes research professor of chemistry at the University of
     California in San Diego

     Begins work on the nature of memory and consciousness

1968

     Publishes "Orthomolecular Psychiatry" in Science

1969-72

     Pauling is Professor of Chemistry at Stanford University in Palo
     Alto, California

1970

     Publishes Vitamin C and the Common Cold

1971

     Receives the International Lenin Peace Prize

1973

     With Arthur B. Robinson and Keene Dimick, he founds the Institute
     of Orthomolecular Medicine as a non-profit California corporation
     to engage in scientific research (it is later renamed the Linus
     Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine)

     In November, Pauling is the first Linus Pauling Lecturer in
     Molecular Biology and Molecular Pharmacology at Stanford
     University

1974

     Testifies before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on
     Labor and Public Welfare of the United States Senate on food
     supplement legislation; he advocates some controls over the sale
     and advertising of vitamins, but not through cla ssifying them as
     drugs

1975

     Receives the National Medal of Science

1978

     Awarded the Lomonosov Gold Medal of the Soviet Academy of Sciences

     Arthur B. Robinson is dismissed as President of the Linus Pauling
     Institute and then brings several lawsuits against the institute
     and its personnel

1979

     With Ewan Cameron, Pauling publishes Cancer and Vitamin C

     The first Mayo Clinic study of vitamin C and cancer shows only a
     small protective effect of vitamin C, which Pauling attributes to
     patients having received heavy doses of cytotoxic drugs

1981

     On 5 December, Ava Helen Pauling dies of stomach cancer

1983

     The Linus Pauling Institute settles its dispute with A.R. Robinson
     out of court (neither party admits liability)

1984

     Pauling receives the Priestly Medal of the American Chemical
     Society

1985

     The second Mayo Clinic study shows no improvement in cancer
     patients who have taken large supplements of vitamin C.; Pauling
     disputes the study

     Publishes the first in a series of papers on quasicrystals (he
     attributes their apparent icosahedral symmetry to multiple
     twinning of cubic crystals)

1986

     Publishes How to Live Longer and Feel Better

1987

     American Chemical Society Award in Chemical Education

1989

     Vannevar Bush Award of the National Science Foundation

1990

     Publishes with Daisaku Ikeda Seimei no seiki e no tankyu--Kagaku
     to heiwa to kenko to (In Quest of the Century of Life--Science and
     Peace and Health) in Tokyo

1991

     Pauling publishes in the New York Times an appeal to stop the rush
     to war in the Persian Gulf

1994

     Pauling died on August 19, 1994
Perutz on Linus

Pauling Papers

A brief biography